The Value of Gurye’s Sansuyu Farming as an Agricultural Heritage
Sansuyu habitats in Sandong-myeon are created with original local method for sustenance in a barren land that lacks farmland. These habitats, which create beautiful scenery harmonized with the surrounding nature, are artificially built in areas between stones and rocks, around town entrance and mountain ridges.
Built with using Sandong-myeon's topography, sansuyu habitat shows how beautiful symbiosis between nature and people are by creating lovely scenery of winding mountain roads, harmoniously gathered houses and low stone walls.
Various herptiles, insects, birds and herbaceous plants growing in sansuyu habitats and on stone walls contribute to forming biological diversity in regions of agricultural heritage. There are traditions of cooperation with towns as units in traditional methods of fertilization, harvest and seed removal. Also, sansuyu farming-related culture is still passed down until today.
Maintenance and Management Efforts of Gurye’s Sansuyu Farming
Farming Fund management for sansuyu farming (scheduled)
Origins of Sansuyu HabitatsIt is said that the name Sandong-myeon came from Shandong Province, China, the home of the girl who moved to Jirisan Mountain upon her marriage and brought the first sansuyu tree 1,000 years ago. There are written records in Sanrimgyeongje (Forestry Economy) and Seungjeongwon Ilgi (The Diaries of the Royal Secretariat) that Gurye’s cornus fruits were cultivated as special products of the region.
Gurye’s sansuyu farming started when Sandong-myeon inhabitants started to plant cornus fruits as medicinal crops artificially in areas between stones and rocks, around town entrance and mountain ridges for sustenance in an unfavorable topographical environment which lacks farmland and suitable weather. There is a thousand-year-old sansuyu tree which was planted in Korea for the first time in Gyecheok Village, Sandong-myeon. Local residents call it 'the Grandmother Tree'.
Agricultural Heritage and Culture
Sandong-aega is a labor song sung by women of Sandong Village. It was originally sung by a nineteen-year-old girl named Baek Bujeon of Sanggwan Village who was taken to be shot to death instead of her older brother in the Yeosu·Soonchun Incident of 1948. Afterwards, the song was passed down as a labor song between women of Sandong Village and was sung during the cornus fruit harvest season in late autumn and the seed separation in winter.
Cornus officinalis flowers bloom when farming period begins, and an ancestral ritual for the abundant harvest is performed every year in the first cornus officinalis habitat in Gyecheok Village. For cornus officinalis related foodstuff, ways to brew cornus fruit tea and cornus fruit wine are passed down in the region.
The Knowledge System and Technology of Sansuyu Farming
- Alluvial fan influenced by Seomjingang River
: Agriculture environment apt for sansuyu farming
- Rich organic soil with good permeability, nutrient-holding capacity and moisture-holding ability
- 2,124 hours of abundant sunshine per year that enable the production of cornus fruits with rich color
- Advantage in producing cornus fruits with excellent taste and qualities with less amount of rainfall after September when the quality of crops are determined